Why Traveling With Your Partner Is Essential

The discussion in the 2017 tourism convention changed my married life. Being part of that event enabled me to understand my priorities even better. That includes having enough reason why I should spend more time with my husband. The tourism convention became a blessing to my once falling relationship. The emphasis on traveling with your partner is something that every couple should consider.

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Why Should You Travel Together?

You and your partner should travel together to get away from the stress of your comfort zones. Both of you need to experience new things to grow. Traveling will make you understand that though familiar things and faces are okay, being lost in the world can become an even better experience. Strange surroundings can channel lots of positive energy that both of you can use to strengthen each other’s companion.

Traveling together with your partner can build long-term trust. Since every situation is different, both of you will learn to appreciate each other’s capabilities to survive. When it’s just the two of you, you will realize that arguing will never solve anything. You will become more engaged with each other, and that is where you’ll become more of a team.

No one says that traveling with your partner always runs in a smooth flow. Of course, there are complications and disagreements along the way. But the great thing about it is both of you will learn to compromise. Traveling will allow both of you to make decisions together. You will learn to help each other as well.

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Given that traveling is a fun experience, both you and your partner will make amazing memories in it. It will become an asset to look back when shades of grey hit. Your traveled moments will remind both of you of the struggle you made through together.

Ancient Egyptian Ways

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Ancient Egypt never fails to amaze us when it comes to their history. There are tons of great things that they pretty much contributed to the world. From the forgotten female Pharaoh, the lost city of Heracleion, to the unseen finished product of the limestone-polished pyramid, there are still more of its secrets that need unraveling. Also, some of the Egyptians ways of living are already incorporated in our lives as of this moment. There’s the origin of hair removal, the fundamentals of makeup, as well as proper hygiene regimes. Now let us take a close look at some of the things that perhaps all of us might feel curious about knowing.


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Masturbation, or onanism, is the stimulation, often manual, of the genitals for sexual gratification. Masturbation is depicted in prehistoric cave paintings and has been observed in many animal species. — Neel Burton M.D.

Masturbation Rituals

There is this ancient Egyptian mythology that tells the god Atum creates the vast of nothingness from masturbation. That the other gods spontaneously grew out of his ejaculation and spit. It is a funny thing that even the outgoing tide and flow of the river Nile seem also attributed to this god’s semen. Though it looks very much unlikely, the concept inspired the annual Pharaoh’s ceremony. As the human representative of gods on Earth, the Pharaoh needs to recreate the myth of the creation of nothingness. By that, the Pharaoh would masturbate in front of the crowd and ejaculate into the river Nile. Regardless of the age of the audience, no single concern appeared given. People do not condemn nor look at it as something inappropriate because they believed that the process of the ceremony ensures an outstanding and bountiful harvest throughout the year. Of course, that is due to the help of their god, Atum.


A lot of deities married their siblings in ancient Egyptian mythology. With that, it allows Egyptian people to acknowledge that incest is a deliberate act. However, although there is little evidence that proves that ordinary Egyptians are marrying their siblings, it was desirable for generations, especially for the royal family. Many of its members believe that incest became a way of creating a better successor, including Tutankhamun. However, due to incompatible DNAs from his father Pharaoh Akhenaten and his sister, he suffered from a wide range of infections, malformation, as well as genetic diseases. There is also a case of him having weak bones which makes him unable to walk by himself.

Some taxpayers were advised to send their daughters along—“prepare your daughter for the king, your lord, and prepare the contributions.” And Akhenaten wanted another 40 women from the prince of Gezer, at a cost of 40 shekels of silver per woman. — Laura Betzig Ph.D.

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The Egyptians have this elaborate preservation of dead bodies through mummification. That is because they believe the process will help the mummified body to reach an afterlife. The whole idea of the process was from Osiris. He was the first ancient Egyptian god who died and got reborn into the afterlife. So being wrapped up and getting preserved during mummification is merely an imitation of the process that Osiris went through in Egyptian mythology. Which is, in a way, the aim is to live on into the afterlife. But all through its consistent practice, it became evident that mummification is merely a way to buy more time for preparation of the tomb.

Views about death and dead people’s bodies and souls vary from culture to culture and century to century, from embalming and mummification techniques to funeral pyres and cremation. —

There are still a lot of ancient Egyptian things out there. Would you be interested in knowing them all?

The Secrets Of Ancient Egypt (Part II)

With all the mysteries of ancient Egypt, people can’t get enough of the information. That is why it gets even more interesting to study and learn their ways. And if things get a little too uncomfortable or weirder to some extent, it doesn’t matter. The whole point of knowing bizarre stuff is what makes ancient Egyptian history amazing.

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Henry David Thoreau wasn’t impressed by the Pyramids. In his classic book, Walden, he wrote, “As for the Pyramids, there is nothing to wonder at in them so much as the fact that so many men could be found degraded enough to spend their lives constructing a tomb for some ambitious booby, whom it would have been wiser and manlier to have drowned in the Nile, and then given his body to the dogs.” — Christopher Ryan Ph.D.

White Pyramids

After the Great Pyramid of Giza was completed way back more than 2000 BCE, the finished aesthetics are different from the current ones we see today. In those years, after its construction, it gets plated with a smooth surface of polished limestone. It beautifully gleamed on the sun, giving it a brighter white look if viewed in different angles meters away from the pyramid. But after the massive earthquake that hit the tomb in the 1301 CE, it lost many of its casting stones. So as impressive as it may look today, the things we see in the outer layer of the Great Pyramid of Giza is merely its core structure and not the finished project. So we can all agree that there is no way we can witness the real gleaming look of one of the magnificent establishments ever built in history.

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There are 3000-year-old granite obelisks all over the temples of Egypt. Covered in gold or electrum, their tips catch the sun’s rays at dawn. — Laura Betzig Ph.D.

Sunken City

One of the greatest cities of Egypt, Thonis-Heracleion, remained lost for over a thousand years. But not until it was re-discover in the water only 23 years ago.  The town was the major trade center that links other countries into the market such as ancient Egypt, Greece, and broader Mediterranean. But after some severe flooding way back the end of the 20th century, the ground of the city succumbed to liquefaction of soil. It made the soil-clay turned into a liquid form that made the city collapsed. Some archeologist that works on excavating project on the lost city found an area of preserved pillars of hieroglyphics, which are in good condition by the way. There are also statues of Greek rulers and gods that depict the fashion of Egyptian pharaohs as well. 


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In the fiercely egalitarian bands of our ancestors there was no place for vast power differences between individuals because such power differences threatened the survival of the entire group. Only much later on in history, in the last few millennia, as communities grew with the advent of agriculture, that such differences in wealth and power arose. — Mark Van Vugt Ph.D.

The Female Pharaoh

It was almost a thousand years that no one remembered “The Female Pharaoh.” Hatshepsut is one of the successful pharaoh’s that rule the kingdom of Egypt that nearly no one recognizes. But that is not until her story gets uncovered in one of the temple walls that were discovered in the 19th century. It was around 1478 BCE when Hatshepsut came to the throne. During her reign in the ancient Egyptian era, there was great peace and prosperity in the whole kingdom. She even over soars incredible beneficial trade routes and built tons of construction projects. But later after her death, there has been a campaign of eradicating anything of her contributions to history. That is where statues of her were never found, and her name appears scraped off of all the walls of constructed buildings under her ruling.

Ancient Egypt surely promises a lot of great things in the knowledge of history. And like you, I am amazingly enthusiastic about it too.

The Secrets Of Ancient Egypt

You probably assume you already know a lot about Egypt because you have access to information on the web. Well, the truth is, some of this information might be true. But let us not disregard the fact that some are not. Egypt is one of the mysterious places on Earth that still exists until today. That is why a lot of people are still trying to figure out its ancient ways and all the stuff that revolves around it. We may see progress in determining the whatnots, but the uncertainty is still on a high level. In line with that, let’s unravel those mysteries and look at those ancient Egyptian secrets.

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Herodotus, who was known as the father of history, wrote about how the pyramids went up in Egypt. He guessed that the work had gone on in 3 month shifts, with 100,000 men in a shift, over a period of 20 years. — Laura Betzig Ph.D.

Who Built The Pyramids

In some popular myths, it was believed that Israeli slaves built the pyramid. However, Egyptologist determined that instead of slaves, Egyptian laborers are the ones responsible for establishing the known Great Pyramid of Giza. There is evidence that proved that thousands of recruits are from Egyptian laborers with unfortunate families. They received offers of gold in exchange for their physical help in building the enormous pyramid. The construction runs over 20 years, which makes it almost half a lifetime of hard work. Yes, the work is incredibly dangerous, exhausting, and frustrating. However, during those construction times, the laborers received high honors. That is contrary to the beliefs that workers are put to death and gets thrown away whenever they no longer fit to work.

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Millions of people escaped death in the Middle Ages because beer fermentation involves boiling water and killing bacteria – as in Egypt, people of all ages consumed beer regularly, reaching 600 liters per person annually. — Stanton Peele Ph.D.

The Era Of Medicine

In line with medical expertise, the Egyptians appear to be one of the best when it comes to that. That is why some rulers of other empires back in the ancient times will ask for Egyptian physicians to help treat their ill loved ones. Because aside from the expertise in using medicinal plants in treating illnesses, Egyptian experts also include magic spells as well. They believe it is essential in protecting the ill-person from demons and other evil spirits. Some say that the rituals and bloodletting procedure accompanied to that is appropriate for long-lasting health treatment. That even if there are some cases of medical brutality that appears to occur in that era, it doesn’t matter as long as the physician is from Egypt.

Strange Ritual

Heb-Sed is a peculiar ritual that took over after the 30 years of Pharaoh ruling. It is a ritual that mainly shows the public that they still have the strength and power necessary to rule the kingdom of Egypt. The initiation of the ceremony takes place every three years right until the pharaoh’s death. In the early practices of the tradition, the ruling candidate gets dressed in a short kilt with bull’s tail on his back. The ruler must run on a race track as fast as possible as he could. If he happens not to finish the race or is unfit to complete the course, he becomes a sacrifice and will be replaced by a more fitted successor. The passing of the position on that era becomes a struggle for some. That is because even if these successors believe they are the right ones who must sit on the thrown when they are not physically fit and capable, they become useless.

Power is a drug like cocaine: both massively change brain function by increasing dopamine activity in the brain’s reward network. These dopamine increases also affect the cortex and change thinking, making people more confident, bolder—and even smarter. — Ian H. Robertson Ph.D.

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There are a lot of things to know about ancient Egypt. Are you excited to know more? Then let’s continue in the next article.

Weird Things Ancient Egyptians Practice

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We often wonder how sometimes ancient tradition influences us. Sometimes, even if we do not know and understand the basis of a particular practice, we still follow it anyways. We often feel we have this responsibility to do what our ancestors are doing because that is part of their lives back then. And frequently, we do not question it because we respect it that much. In the same manner, that is how Egyptians value their traditions. Sometimes, even if it does not feel right or does not make any sense at all, the Egyptians practice weird stuff without hesitations. Let’s figure out what are those things, shall we?

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In Egypt, there were always two professional women mourners present at a burial who were representatives of the goddesses Isis and Nephtys. To be a mourner, the women could not have born children. Their body hair was shaved and the names of Isis and Nephtys inscribed on their shoulders. — Marilyn A. Mendoza Ph.D.

Extreme Hair Removal

Egyptians care about their tradition that much that is why hair removal goes deeper than anyone can imagine. For kids on either gender, patches of hair get left so that one day it will be removed. The procedure requires taking every visible hair out of the body. That explains why most men are bald. For women, they can keep the hair in their head, but not on their entire body. The purpose of it is to welcome these children into their entry on adulthood. It was nothing unusual for the ancient Egyptians and considered it as a regular practice.

Cleaning Their Bathroom Waste Using Bare Hands

For some sensitive people, they would not like this information. But the Egyptians are different. Since they care about cleanliness that much, they do not mind if using bare hands in cleaning their bathroom waste right after they work on their excretion. Yes, after they try and remove those nasty things in their stomach, their hands suffer a lot. However, for those wealthy Egyptians, they hire someone to do the job for them. So yes, imagine that.

Egyptian business letters of the time sometimes closed with a wish that the recipient would keep their good hearing. — John D Mayer Ph.D.

Having More Than A Thousand Ruler Option

When it comes to rulers or any other technical religious beliefs and following, the Egyptians do not have a shortage of god options. There are over a thousand of known higher power that a lot of these people praise and believe in. These gods are said to have dominion over everything specific life attributes such as healing, serving, and breathing. The most popular of them all is Amun Ra. He is the king god that protects people from inevitable evil and bad spirits.

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Makeup For Everyone

For most Egyptians, putting up makeup is not just a necessity. Back in ancient times, those liners represent status and greatness. Thus, men and women get to experience putting stuff in their faces for that particular reason. These people use different brush, flowers, and plants to create a masterpiece that presents themselves in public throughout the day. It is a rational religious belief that makeup is essential in protecting them from evil spirits.

Cross-cultural research has demonstrated worldwide variations in what is physically appealing. Such relativity roots beauty in socialization, not evolution. — Theresa E DiDonato Ph.D.

There are a lot of things that Egyptians consider concerning their tradition, and some of them may be extreme for some reasons. But for these people, following their beliefs is far more than just a simple way of living because they consider it as a respect to their culture and ancient life.

Why A Therapist Recommends the Ancient Egyptian Healing Massage

In order for self-care to manifest with regularity, one needs to plan it into their calendar with intention. Otherwise, it’s easy to let that priority fall by the way side. —

Stress from school, work, family, and friends can be, at times, demotivating and draining. It is during these moments some of us resort to consuming a lot of our comfort food. Others would go out and travel to different places while some prefer staying at home and watching their favorite series. The rest may choose to visit a massage therapist. All of these can help you regain that drive and energy back. Massages are designed to relax you from all of these stresses.

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The manipulation of soft tissue, including muscles, joints, connective tissues, tendons, and ligaments, is known as massage therapy. It has been a well-known and used treatment for various body pains, chronic pain conditions, and everyday stresses. One of the first cultures to use such treatment is the ancient Egyptians between 3000 and 2500 BCE. The ancient Egyptians used massages for therapeutic purposes. One of their earliest forms of massage is the Ancient Egyptian Healing Massage.

Ancient Egyptian Healing Massage

The earliest references of ancient Egyptian massages found on the walls of the tomb of Ptahhotep shown to be having a manicure and pedicure. The next sighting came from the tomb of Niuserre, which showed a king enjoying a foot massage. The last sighting was on the wall carvings in the tomb of renowned healer Ankhmahor where men were seen to have their feet and hands worked on. Each sculpture has shown that the areas for concern among the Egyptians were mainly the hands and the feet.

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Today, there are only a handful of practitioners left for this specific form of massage therapy. However, this served as a pioneering force that drove towards modern-day reflexology, which is also known as zone therapy. Ancient Egyptian healing massages back in the past focused on energy pathways. The Egyptians were concerned with massaging specific areas or “zones” of the body where energy is believed to flow. Through this massage, one can get rid of the blockages preventing the imbalance of energy flow within their body.

The Egyptians were also known to be masters of therapeutic oil. Such oils of today have been helpful in various forms of injuries and diseases such as chronic muscle pains and sinus problems. With the combination of such oils in their massage practices, a person can be guaranteed to have their energy flowing once again.

That’s the irony of massage. It stimulates the neurochemical oxytocin, the feeling we experience as trust, but you have to start with a lot of trust for it to work. — Loretta G. Breuning Ph.D.

Benefits Of A Massage  

In modern times, several concepts of the ancient Egyptian have paved the way for therapeutic massage and reflexology. These two fields have been used in conjunction to help relax an individual. Reflexology focuses on zones and does not use therapeutic oils while therapeutic massages may. Listed below are eight major benefits of massage therapy.

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  • Gets Rid Of Muscle Pain

A person can obtain an increase in blood circulation from massage therapy. Through this increase in flow, you can lose your muscle pain most of the time.

  • Improves Sleep

Being in a state of relaxation can help boost a person’s mood. It makes it easier for anyone to sleep after a stressful day from work or school.

Research shows that gentle touch in a safe environment aids stress reduction and pain relief (for example, Weze et al., 2005). — Deborah Bier, PhD

  • Relieves Anxiety And Stress

Through massage therapy, you can alleviate your anxiety and stress since this can help release endorphins in your body. Endorphins are hormones which give you a feeling of joy, ease, and energy.

  • Improves Blood Circulation

The energy paths, the Ancient Egyptians may have referred to might have been the flow of our blood stream. Massages have been shown to increase one’s blood flow throughout their body. It can help get rid of fatigue and different forms of muscle pain.

  • Enhances The Immune System

Certain studies have found massages to stimulate the lymph nodes. It recharges one’s natural defense systems. Other studies have also found it to boost a person’s white blood cell count.

  • Eliminates Toxins

Massages have also been found to stimulate the soft tissues in your body. It also helps your lymphatic systems to release toxins in your body.

  • Increases Range Of Motion

Massages help relax your muscles and make it easier to move around. Those who usually play sports that increase the tension in their muscles may need this to expand their range of motion such as baseball pitchers, football players, and basketball players.

  • Decreases Fibromyalgia Pain

Fibromyalgia-related pain involves pain caused by aches found all over your body. It may come from painful “tender” points which don’t disappear no matter what medication you take. By getting a therapeutic massage, however, you can alleviate and get rid of this problem.

The ancient Egyptians have contributed a lot to the field of reflexology and therapeutic massage. It has paved the way for an alternative form of medicine which can directly and immediately help you.

The State Of Mental Health In Egypt

The mental health sector in Egypt is currently working on its awareness and progressing towards providing proper healthcare to all its citizens in all regions. This Mediterranean country is still considered underdeveloped in terms of mental health awareness compared to the west.  A nationwide survey conducted by psychologists in 2018 resulted in 25% of the population suffering and enduring numerous mental health issues, namely, anxiety, depression, drug, and substance abuse. It showed that the rural regions had the highest rates of mental health problems compared to their urban counterparts.

[Vamik] Volkan says we have a “second skin,” a secondary layer of personhood.  In addition to our sense of self, we often have an extended identity: our group identity. — Molly S. Castelloe Ph.D.

Though higher authorities and governments were notified and have said to be implementing plans to provide access to proper treatment, the developments seem to be too slow in adequately caring for the people of Egypt. Egypt’s mental health sector still suffers from low funding, material, and human resources. Not to mention the scarcity of proper health facilities to treat citizens that needs full care.

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Another issue Egypt faces in the mental health sector is the lack of trained professionals. There is still a growing stigma against mental health care and the idea of the illness that pushes Egyptians to believe mental health is a myth. The government promise to promote awareness, but even until now, citizens of Egypt still lack proper treatment and education on the issue.

Depression, Anxiety, And Substance Abuse

Common mental health illnesses, as stated above, are prevalent all across the globe. Sadly it is also the three major health issues in Egyptians today. Depression, anxiety, and substance abuse cause the most impact through the significant harm they bring in different parts of Egypt mainly; mortality, morbidity, and financial destruction.

  • 43.7% of Egyptians suffer from anxiety disorders.
  • 30.1% suffer from depression linked to drug/substance abuse.

Often what causes us suffering is not a particular adverse event, but our opinion about it. We can make a difficult situation much worse by the attitude we bring to it. — Susan K Perry Ph.D.

What Has The Government Done?

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  • Mental Health Awareness Campaigns

Egypt has attempted to launch campaigns, increasing awareness of mental health issues. The advocacies are usually collaborations with NGOs and governments to reach out to the marginalized and in need. Egypt has also tried to launch awareness through the media – television shows and movies.

  • Law For Proper Care Of Mental Health Patients

Egypt’s parliament passed a mental health law in 2009 that ensures the protection of the rights of the patients who suffer from different mental health problems. The law also included a bill of rights for mental health facilities, and the patients’ right to consent to be treated or admitted into these facilities.

Why Isn’t Egypt’s Health Sector Providing Proper Care Nationwide?

  • Lack of trained mental health professionals
  • Low government spending
  • Lack of facilities
  • Negative stigma towards mental health
  • Failure of the government to see it as a priority

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Though the government still aims to improve. It is evident the citizens of Egypt still need more awareness and treatment, especially in rural areas. Compared to Western countries where people continuously erase the negative stigma around mental health, and where healthcare and awareness are prominent, the Egyptian government still needs to go a long way to provide citizens with the exact treatment they need. Another issue growing is the increase in anxiety and depression in teachers and young students all over the country. Having a mental health professional in each institution will help in catering the teachers and students in need.

“Treat others the way they deserve to be treated.” Let’s call it the “New Golden Rule.” What this implies is that we should judge others to assess what kind of treatment they deserve, and then treat them accordingly. —

Mental health awareness wasn’t as prevalent in the past years. But throughout the 2000s era, the stigma around it has completely changed. People all over the world used to brush off deep-rooted emotions and traumas because there was no one else around them speaking out on issues such as theirs. Now that it is a global issue, starting with first world countries through pop culture, social media, and celebrities speaking out on their experiences with mental illnesses, there are more outlets for people who need proper treatment and health care.

This awareness is still slowly making its way to smaller countries such as Egypt, but they still have a long way to go. The people of Egypt deserve the same treatment people of western countries receive, precisely because they suffer a higher percentage of it.

More and more campaigns are being launched to bring awareness to this, and facilities and workforce still have yet to be provided equally. Egypt has a long way to go before being able to properly attend to the citizens that truly need the government’s help and attention. Multiple NGOs continue to fight for their rights to proper treatment from higher authorities. Hopefully, this makes a significant mark to bring attention to the Egyptian government and improve the mental health of its people.

Survey: 25% Of Egyptians Suffer From Mental Health Issues

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Twenty-five percent of the Egyptian population are afflicted with disorders and conditions related to mental health. This was discovered from the findings of a study conducted throughout the nation by the Ministry of Health.
Continue reading “Survey: 25% Of Egyptians Suffer From Mental Health Issues”

The Development Of Behavioral Health In Egypt


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The Basics

Egyptian behavioral health or Egyptian psychology started in the 19th century. Psychology according to Islam was the study of the human behavior and the human mind – the mind specifically referring to human consciousness or intellect. Hence, the old Islamic psychology did not only focus on the mind. It included the soul, which represented human personality and nature. It also included the heart and the spirit, as evidenced by the extensive writings of the medieval Arab scholars. Islamic behavioral health or Islamic psychology as a whole encompassed the study of the self (or the ‘Nafs’) and was associated with psychiatry, psychology, and the sciences.

The Development

An Egyptian king did the first documented psychological experiment in the 7th century. It concluded that if children from Egypt were separated when they were infants without exposure to any type of communication, they would instinctively speak their original language – Egyptian – further supporting the idea that language comes from the mind. Eventually, psychology was introduced and practiced by all Arab regions, and several Arab scholars made history in contributing to the discipline. These include Ibn-Khaldoun, Al-Farabi, Ibn-Sina, and Ibn-al-Heitham.

The practice flourished even more with the opening of the first university in Egypt in 1908. Subsequently, the first behavioral health lecture was held there in 1911, which was a discussion of the psychology of women. During this time, French teachers taught psychology in Egypt. However, in 1940, the Egyptian psychologists were given the responsibility, and since then they taught psychology. The best teacher ever known in Egypt was Y. Mourad, who studied and earned his Psychology degree in France. After him, several others got qualified to teach the discipline in Egypt and surrounding Arab countries, although organizations established associated with psychology were short-lived due to financial reasons.


Undeniably, Egypt became the primary doorway of modern psychology to the rest of the Arab nations. Consequently, most of these nations share equal strengths and weaknesses with Egypt when it comes to the behavioral health discipline. Perhaps this is because Egypt and the Arab nations share the same language, religion, history, and political issues. Some of the trials and challenges of Egyptian psychology include:

  • Universities in Egypt have had financial issues, just as other sectors in Egypt did. This affected academic outcomes, including psychology.
  • The Psychology Department is still part of the Arts Department in Egypt instead of being a separate one. This is why the discipline is torn between the scientific and the literary disciplines. As a result, there is also a conflict between two classifications of psychologists – the teachers from graduate school and those from the medical group.
  • Animal psychology has not been receiving attention in the Egyptian psychological institutes.
  • The presence of misconceptions surrounding psychology, including the belief that mental illness is a sign of weak faith, that those who are inflicted with a mental disorder should not be given high-level type jobs, and that mentally ill individuals should not be allowed to wander freely but should be locked away in mental care institutions.

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The Future Of Egyptian Behavioral Health

In spite of the many trials, even until today, Egyptian psychologists have reached up to 70% of the entire Arab psychologist population, and Egyptian research and studies make up approximately 70% of the entire Arabic outcomes. These committed psychologists who are sincere in their practice hope to be involved in more collaboration with funded trials with colleagues from across the world. They want to establish a standard database for different psychological tests that are useful especially for their people. It is also their biggest hope that one day, professional meetings and conferences of psychological societies will be held in the Arab regions to help them in developing behavioral health and psychology as a whole in their part of the world.


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Indeed, there have been, and still, there are challenges that face Egyptian psychology, which includes finances to support and perform research activities. Unfortunately, there is also a lack of an appropriate system of communication among Egyptian and Arab psychologists, plus a vague and problematic identity of the standing of psychology. The further development of this experimental but major branch of science in Egypt will not be a walk in the park, but it certainly has to be done.




Faith And Society: How Religious Beliefs Shape The Modern Day Egypt

The Golden Rule can be found in religions and philosophies all over the world. It was first written down in ancient Egypt. —

When it comes to famous tourist destinations, Egypt has always been on the top of lists since the time of enlightenment. But what made these tourist destinations different from other countries is its correlation with the ancient civilization and the religious beliefs that every Egyptian family still carries until now.

Since the early 1300s, Egypt has been practicing their religious beliefs as the basis for making laws of the state. The legislative branch of the Egyptian government sees the predominant religion like Islam as a primary pillar that can shape society for the future generation. However, let us also tackle and look at the relationship of other minor religious beliefs like Christianity and Judaism to modern Egyptian society.

Islam As The Predominant Religion

Egypt’s population consists of roughly 94 percent of Muslim believers. A large part of this population considers themselves as the follower of Sunni Islam in which they recognize the four caliphs as the rightful leaders of the state. Meanwhile, there is also a small portion of this population that faithfully believes in Mu’tazila, Shia Twelvers, and Ismailism. Apart from that, the renowned principal and long-standing Islamic university ever recorded in the world is in Egypt.

Al-Azhar University offers Islamic studies that enhance the Muslim believer’s principles, convictions, and practices in which it can foster a beneficial impact on all sectors of the Egyptian community. After graduation, the majority of the students from the university pursue working in the government where they can facilitate legislative decisions that follow the Islamic rules. It is also to support the propagation of Islamic faith which citizens believe to be an effective political system and the only way they can afford the preservation of order.

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Although Islam and its rules have contributed a positive impact to the community as the official state religion of Egypt, flaws continue to emerge such as denial of religious freedom. The government is firm with the decision of not recognizing non-Muslim individuals because they believe that it is in contradiction with national peace. So for citizens who have converted and practiced other religious belief, they are arrested and subjected to penalization.

It is an old truth but a frequently forgotten one: there are no leaders without followers. If followers decide to take a different route then the individual at the front ceases to be the leader. — Mark Van Vugt Ph.D.

Christianity As The Second Religion

The Christian religion in Egypt still exists to around five percent of the population despite the prominence of Islamic faith in the country. A large portion of the Christian community in Egypt belongs to the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria where the Bible is the basis of services and lessons.

Because of the presence of Christianity, the government has adopted a more democratic way of leadership in the country. The 12 diocesan bishops serve as the authorities or councils in the community, where they handle the finances of the Christian churches in the area. They are authorized to administer rules in regards to education, heritage, and marriage.

Just like Islam, the leaders of the Christian church in Egypt have established primary schools, secondary schools, and colleges that hone children to the teachings of the gospel. Aside from that, a strong foundation of Sunday-school movement has been visible for years to offer religious education, good ethics, and manners to incapable children who cannot go to Coptic schools.

Judaism: The Lowest In Number Among The Recognized Religions

Although Judaism is considered one of the oldest broad evangelical religions present in the world, it is still one of the lowest in terms of the number recognized in Egypt. Records estimate that less than one percent of present-day Egypt’s population practices Judaism. The 40 Jews remaining in the country is a representation of the ones who left after the massive migration to Israel in 1948. 

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A lot of Jewish religious practices are very much family-oriented. For example, they never forget the tradition of doing Sabbath meal where relatives unite in one table to honor the sacred day. Since the religion of Judaism is a faith of action, believers tend to seek both obedience to the law of the land and obedience to the law of the spirits which contribute to the holiness of the world. The remaining population of Egypt who believes in Judaism follows rules that help with keeping a group of individuals together for the betterment of the future generation.

Unrecognized Religions

The remaining percentage of the entire population of Egypt belongs to the unrecognized religions such as Atheism, Hinduism, Baha’I Faith, and Agnosticism. The religions mentioned are the religious beliefs that were not able to register their customs and traditions to the Department of Religious Affairs. The lack of state recognition of the religions is an indication of a more complex processing system in the country. For example, an individual who has Baha’I faith that is residing in Egypt may have a hard time registering for bank accounts, educational institutions, and businesses.

Source: commons.wikimedia.org

Since the early times, faith and society were never separate. They always come hand in hand because religion is instituted to regulate society. There is a strong potential for religious beliefs and practices to enormously address social issues. That is why it has taken up accountability to improve the shape of society in all aspects.

We don’t control other people, the weather, the economy, our bodies and health, our reputation, or things in the past and future. The only thing we have complete control over is our beliefs—if we choose to exercise this control. — Susan K Perry Ph.D.